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Despite their differences, the two systems allow comparison for statistical purposes.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (Pr EP) with a daily dose of the medications tenofovir, with or without emtricitabine, is effective in a number of groups including men who have sex with men, couples where one is HIV positive, and young heterosexuals in Africa.
In low-income countries, the risk of female-to-male transmission is estimated as 0.38% per act, and of male-to-female transmission as 0.30% per act; the equivalent estimates for high-income countries are 0.04% per act for female-to-male transmission, and 0.08% per act for male-to-female transmission.
Sexual assault is also believed to carry an increased risk of HIV transmission as condoms are rarely worn, physical trauma to the vagina or rectum is likely, and there may be a greater risk of concurrent sexually transmitted infections.
The mechanism of CD4 T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor.
After the virus enters the body there is a period of rapid viral replication, leading to an abundance of virus in the peripheral blood.
It is also linked to the breakdown of the immune surveillance system of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier caused by the depletion of mucosal CD4 The CDC's classification system is more frequently adopted in developed countries.
Since the WHO's staging system does not require laboratory tests, it is suited to the resource-restricted conditions encountered in developing countries, where it can also be used to help guide clinical management.
The World Health Organization recommends treating all children less than 5 years of age; children above 5 are treated like adults.
Measures to prevent opportunistic infections are effective in many people with HIV/AIDS.